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Brief Reporting notes in shorthand 



7 ^ 
3 S 


Isaac Pitman 






;: Brief Reporting Notes 
IN Shorthand 






Engraved in the Advanced Reporting Style of Pitman's Shorthand. 



Sir Isaac Pitman & SoiNS, Ltd., i Amen Corner, E.G. 

BATH : Phonetic Institute. 

NEW YORK : 31 Union Square. 


i The Shorthand Commercial Letter 


A Guide to Commercial Correspondence in the Reporting Style of 
Pitman^s Shorthand. 

Presents specimens of the kind of correspondence used in business, 
so that the student can train himself in the art of writing business 
letters from dictation. The learner who practises correspondence 
with the assistance of this book, will familiarize himself with the 
peculiar phraseology current in the legal and commercial world. 
Fcap. 8vo. Price is. ; Cloth, is. 6d. 

Key to the " Shorthand Commercial Letter Writer," 

Containing all the letters of the Shorthand Commercial Letter 
Writer in ordinary type. 

Price 6d. ; Post-free jd. ; Cloth, is. 

2. Office Work in Shorthand. 

Being specimens of Miscellaneous Work, commonly dictated to 

Shorthand Clerks, in Reporting Style. 

Fcap. 8vo. Price is. ; Cloth, is. 6d. 

Key to " Office Work in Shorthand," 

Containing all the Letters, &c., of Office Work in Shorthand, 
in ordinary type. 

Price 6d. ; Post-free 7d. ; Cloth is. 

3. Business Correspondence in 

Containing original letters relating to various trades, in the 
Reporting Style. 

Fcap. 8va Price is. ; Cloth, is. 6d. 

Key to "Business Correspondence in Shorthand." 

In ordinary type, with the letters counted for dictation. 

Price 6d. ; Post-free, jd. ; Cloth, is. 

*^* The above three works form a series. 

LONDON : Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., i Amen Oirner, E.G. 
And at BATH and NEW YORK 

Brief Reporting Notes 
IN Shorthand 






Engraved in the Advanced Reiporting Style of Phman's Shorthand. 


Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., i Amb-n Corner, E.C. 

BATH : rnoNETic Institute. 

NEW YORK: 31 Unio.\ Square. 

" t 

■ - ■• ' J W 7 

■• i 1 0/1 

J 7 -J^ « !?•;>"; I /■ 1 / 

Printed by 

Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., 


'i .»•'•:? ('«>)/. •'• 

'.•• f » 

« 9 • « r 



THE present collection of shorthand reading matter in the 
Advanced Reporting Style of Pitman's Shorthand, with 
key in ordinary type counted for dictation purposes, has been 
prepared at the request of several leading teachers, who con- 
sidered that such a publication would meet a greatly felt want 
that existed for judiciously selected matter representative of 
the principal descriptions of addresses in politics, science, litera- 
ture, and the law, with which the shorthand practitioner is called 
on to deal. It will be observed that the selections cover a very 
wide range of subjects, and it may be especially pointed out that 
the scientific extracts deal with the most modern developments of 
science, and are consequently of great value to the student. The 
collection will, it is believed, afford valuable practice for those 
who are qualifying for the First Class Certificate in Shorthand of 
the Society of Arts ; and it may be added that Nos. 2, 26, and 27, 
n in the collection are extracted from recent examinatiea papers for 
5 this certificate. In addition to the employment of all the con- 
tractions and phrases given in PiTMAN'sShORTHAND INSTRUCTOR, 
many of the valuable contracted forms, and also the method of 
y representing figures, given in Thomas A. Reed's TECHNICAL 
g Reporting, are introduced. For the purpose of extending the 
•" student's acquaintance with a varied selection of dictated matter, 
it is suggested that the present work be used in conjunction with 
the Shorthand Commercial Letter Writer, Office 
Work in Shorthand, and Business Correspondence. 




On International Relations 

The Currency Question 

The Monroe Doctrine 

On Shorthand and Word Studies 

The Cathode Ray 

On Light ... ... ... 

On the Electric Light 

8 On Color Photography 

9 On the Atmosphere ... 
Indian Rainfall 
On Motor Cars 
The Antiseptic Treatment 
On Anesthesia 
The Actor's Art ..; 
On Burke ... 
On Greek Literature 

17 An Interview with Dr. Jabez Hogg 

18 A Legal Argument 

19 A Legal Speech 
A Naval Court Martial ... 
From a Sermon by... 
From a Sermon by... 
A Financial Statement 
A Parliamentary Speech ... 
A Parliamentary Speech ... 

26 A Legal Judgment 

27 On Burns ... 
Key to Brief Reporting Notes 

Thomas F. Bayard 
Graver Cleveland 
Grover Cleveland 
E. R. Gardiner 

A. Wright ... 
% Tyndall ... 
W. H. Preece 

H. Trueman Wood 
yames Dewar 
D. Archibald 

Joseph Lister 

B. Ward Richardson 
Beerbohm Tree 
Lord Rosebery 
John M or ley 

Arthur P. Stanley 
Charles Gore 

Lord Roselery 













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The very object of scientific advancement is the expansion ot 
intellectual and moral views, and that necessarily creates a sense 
of fellowship, and a fellowship in its strongest, and its | best mean- 
ing — (cheers) — and when we see the chaplet of British approval 
placed upon an American brow, or when we see the chaplet of 
American approval placed upon a British | brow, we feel the growth 
of science and the liberality and the generosity of its meaning and 
expansion. (Chefers.) Then each country can say of the other, 
as it sees | its sons preferred, that the gift and the grace of recog- 
nition are never so potent as in those who themselves deserve it 
most : — 

Praise from thy lips 'tis mine with | joy to boast, 

For they can give it who deserve it most. 

(Cheers.) The other day there was a scene at which I was for- 
tunately present — a scene never to | be forgotten. I saw the King- 
dom of Great Britain fairly and strongly and honorably represented 
m greeting, not a military conqueror, not a successful merchant or 
inventor, but a simple, | hardy, heroic son of science. (Cheers.) 
All ranks and classes — from the Royal Family downwards — came 
forward to do honor to the plain, sincere servant of science, the 
Norwegian, Nansen. I (Loud cheers.) It v/as a striking spectacle 
— one not soon to be forgotten, nor the meaning of which should 
be forgotten. (Cheers.) The epigrammatic force which seems so 
largely to | have endowed our cousins in fair France has found its 
expression, in considering the relative power of the land and the 
sea, in the statement that the trident of Neptune | has become the 
sceptre of the world. Perhaps that is true, but certainly no such 
expression to prove its truth has been found, as that from the pen 
of Captain | Mahan, who enforces the great truth of the relations 
of the sea power to operations upon land. That is an illustration 
which your club and the societies of which it | is composed can 
thoroughly and better comprehend than most. (339) 

The only way left open to the Government for procuring gold 
is by the issue or sale ot its bonds. The only bonds that can be 
so issued were authorised | nearly 25 years ago, and are not well 
calculated to meet our present needs. Among other disadvantages 
they are made payable in coin instead of specifically in gold, which J 
in existing conditions detracts largely and in an increasing ratio 
from their desirability as investments. It is by no means certain 
that bonds of this description can much longer be | disposed of at a 
price creditable to the financial character of our Government. It 


will hardly do to say that a simple increase of our revenue will 
cure our troubles. | The apprehension now existing and constantly 
increasing regarding our financial ability does not rest upon a 
calculation of our revenue. The time has passed when the eyes 
of investors abroad | and our people at home were fixed upon the 
revenues of the Government. Changed conditions have attracted 
their attention to the gold of the Government. There need be no 
fear ] that we cannot pay our current expenses with such money 
as we have. There is now in the Treasury the comfortable surplus 
of more than 63 million dollars, but | it is not in gold, and therefore 
does not meet our difficulty. I cannot see that differences of 
opinion concerning the extent to which silver ought to be coined 
or I used in our currency should interfere with the counsels of those 
whose duty it is to rectify evils now apparent in our financial 
situation. They have to consider the question | of the national 
credit, and the consequences that will fall from its collapse. 
Whatever ideas may be insisted upon as to silver or bimetallism, a 
proper solution of the question | now pressing upon us only requires 
the recognition of gold as well as silver, and a concession of its 
importance, rightfully or wrongfully acquired, as a basis of national 
credit | — a necessity in the honorable discharge of our obligations 
payable in gold, and a badge of solvency. I do not understand 
that the real friends of silver desire a condition | that might follow 
inaction or neglect in order to appreciate the meaning of the 
present exigency, if it should result in the entire banishment of 
gold from our financial and j currency arrangements. (392) 

It will be seen that one of these communications is devoted 
exclusively to observations upon the Monroe doctrine, and claims 
that, in the present instance, a new and strange extension | and 
development of this doctrine is insisted on by us, and that the 
reasons justifying an appeal to the doctrine enunciated by Presi- 
dent Monroe are generally inapplicable " to the state | of things in 
which we live at the present day," and especially inapplicable to 
the controversy involving the boundary line between Great Britain 
and Venezuela. Without attempting an extended argument | in 
reply to these positions, it may not be amiss to suggest that the 
doctrine upon which we stand is strong and sound, because its 
enforcement is important to our | peace and safety as a nation, and 
is essential to the integrity of our free institutions and the tran- 
quil maintenance of our distinctive form of Government. It was 
intended to | apply to every stage of our national life, and cannot 
become obsolete while our Republic endures. If the balance of 
power is justly a cause for jealous anxiety among Governments | 
of the Old World, an-d a subject for our absolute non-interference, 
none the le-ss is the observance of the Monroe doctrine a vital con- 
cern for our people and their | Government. Assuming, therefore, 
that we may properly insist upon this doctrine without regard to 
" the state of things in which we live," or any changed conditions 


here or elsewhere, it | is not apparent why its application may not 
be invoked in the present controversy. If an European Power, by 
an extension of its boundaries, takes possession of the territory of f 
one of our neighbouring Republics against its will and in deroga- 
tion of its rights, it is difificult to see why, to that extent, such 
European Power does not thereby attempt | to extend its system of 
Government to that portion of this continent which is thus taken. 
This is the precise action which President Monroe declared to be 
"dangerous to our | peace and safety," and it can make no difference 
whether the European system is extended by an advance of frontier 
or otherwise. It is also suggested in the British reply | that we 
should not seek to apply the Monroe doctrine to the pending dis- 

f)ute, because it does not embody any principle of international 
aw which " is founded on the general | consent of nations." (393) 

No one hears so many of the world's great talkers as the 
reporter in the full practice of his profession ; no one reviews 
them so delicately or has such opportunities | of comparing one 
with another and of noting peculiarities of style. One of the 
facts disclosed by forty years* reporting of public speakers is 
the marked tendency towards greater simplicity | of expression. 
Involved sentences, a Johnsonese dialect, big words to say little 
things, are not tolerated as they once were. Conciseness and 
condensation, as elements of style, have largely taken | the place of 
"classicism." It is not so much stateliness as incisiveness that 
is sought. Who ever hears nowadays the words " irrefragable," 
"impeccable," and all that class? They have been | thrown 
entirely away. Yet they used to be of frequent occurrence in 
discourses. The axiom of the modern speaker appears to be 
that to talk effectively one must talk tersely. | Compare Sumner 
with Parkhurst Compare the elaborate periods and showy 
rhetoric of the speakers of our earlier reporting days Math the 
crispness, the pointedness, and compactness of any modern orator | 
who really gains the public ear. Let it not, however, be supposed 
that there is any diminution in the power or the plentifulness of 
impassioned eloquence. Great occasions call forth | as fervid 
utterances now as ever. And the need of means for their 
preservation remains the same. Some one says of the orators 
of our revolutionary period that the overwhelming | results 
produced by them cannot be now understood, because the 
reporting talent of the day was inadequate for their reproduction. 
But modern reporters could easily have preserved them. There 
is I no fear that losses of that kind will be hereafter sustained 
by the world. The effects produced by our great speakers at 
momentous crises will be completely apprehended by posterity. | 
The stenographic report, in the daily newspaper, will fully image 
to the historian the things so grandly said. (31^) 

(From a Paper on " Shorthand and Related Studies, particularly Word -Studies," 
by Mr. E. R. Gardiner, Official Court Stenographer, Providence, R.I.) 


If we surround the wires between which the electrical 
discharge occurs with a glass tube so tirmly closed that no air 
can enter, and connect the tube with an efficient | air-pump, it 
will be found that very great changes in the character of the 
spark will appear as the air is gradually withdrawn from the 
space enclosed by the | tube. The narrow, tortuous, thread-like 
spark loses its definite outline, becomes enlarged, hazy in 
structure, and takes on a rosy purple tint. As the exhaustion 
proceeds it progressively expands, | becomes more and more 
nebulous in its appearance, and its length may be very greatly 
augmented by increasing the interval between the wires. When 
the pressure of the gas within | the tube has been reduced to 
something like the hundredth part of that of the atmosphere, 
the luminous haze fills the entire tube, and glows brightly 
with tints varying with | the kind of gas enclosed, and often 
very beautiful. Already, long before this point has been reached, 
the discharge at the negative pole, or cathode, has begun to show 
its I individuality, first, by the creeping of the luminous stream 
backward, so as to form a kind of sheath or envelope of the 
wire, of a characteristic bluish color, then, as | the exhaustion 
proceeds, by becoming independent of the position of the positive 
wire, or anode, and extending outward from the wire in every 
direction. These are the first steps in | the development of the 
cathode ray. A new step was taken by Crookes, which proved 
to be of great importance, and led to the discovery of many 
curious effects. Mr | Crookes experimented with tubes in which 
the exhaustion was pushed to an extreme degree, so far, indeed, 
that the slight remnant of gas left behind possessed a tension 
ot only I a few millionths of an atmosphere. At this pressure 
the former luminous appearance of the tube no longer manifests 
itself, and there is little or no visible trace of the | discharge 
stream from the cathode or elsewhere. The glass, however, 
now glows with a green fluorescence where the stream comes 
in contact with it, and suitably selected objects in its | path, 
within the tube, glow with vivid colors, forming a most brilliant 
spectacle. (373) 

{From a Paper by Professor A. Wright, of Yale University, U.S.A., 
on the 'Cathode Ray" in the "Forum.") 

We have employed as our source of light in these lectures 
the ends of two rods of coke, rendered incandescent by electricity. 
Coke is particularly suitable for this purpose, because | it can 
bear intense heat without fusion or vaporization. It is also 
black, which helps the light; for, other circumstances being 
equal, as shown experimentally by Professor Balfour Stewart, 
the I blacker the body the brighter will be its light when 
incandescent. Still, refractory as carbon is, if we closely 
examine our voltaic arc, or stream of light, between the carbon- | 


points, we should find there incandescent carbon-vapor. And 
if we could detach the light of this vapor from the more dazzling 
light of the solid points, we should find | its spectrum not only 
less brilliant, but of a totally different character from the spectra 
that we have already seen. Instead of being an unbroken 
succession of colors from red | to violet, the carbon-vapor would 
yield a few bands of color with spaces of darkness between 
them. What is true of the carbon is true in a still more | 
striking degree of the metals, the most refractory of which can 
be fused, boiled, and reduced to vapor by the electric current. 
From the incandescent vapor the light, as a | general rule, flashes 
in groups of rays of definite degrees of refrangibility, spaces 
existing between group and group, which are unfilled by rays 
of any kind. But the contemplation of | the facts will render 
this subject more intelligible than words can make it. Within 
the camera is now placed a cylinder of carbon hollowed out at 
the top to receive | a bit of metal ; in the hollow is placed a 
fragment of the metal thallium. Down upon this we bring the 
upper carbon-point, and then separate the one from | the other. 
A stream of incandescent thallium vapor passes between them, 
the magnified image of which is now seen upon the screen. It 
is of a beautiful green color. What | is the meaning of that green ? 
We answer the question by subjecting the light to prismatic 
analysis. Sent through the prism, its spectrum is seen to consist 
of a single | refracted band, (332) 

The great problem for solution is so to diffuse light through- 
out a room that it shall be distributed uniformly over the working 
surfaces with an intensity of a lux. Sixteen | -candle glow lamps 
suspended 8 ft. above the floor and fixed in 8 ft. squares, effect 
this purpose very efficiently ; and groups of four such lamps fixed 
16 ft. high I produce a similar result. The light a lamp gives is 
due to the expenditure of energy in its carbon filament ; an electric 
current is driven through this filament by electric | pressure, its 
resistance is overcome, it is intensely heatedly the proceeding, 
and the result is pure unadulterated light. The energy expended 
per second by an ampere (the standard current) | driven by a volt 
(the standard pressure) is called a watt. A i6-candle glow lamp 
takes 64 watts, which assuming the lamps to be fixed 8 feet high, | 
means that one watt per square foot of surface is required to secure 
ample illumination from lamps so fixed. In designing the normal 
illumination of rooms, I take the floor | area in square feet and divide 
it by 64, which gives the number of i6-candle power lamps required, 
fixed 8 ft. high, and these are increased or diminished | according to 
the purposes of the room, its form and height, and other conditions. 
The adaptability of the eye to nearly every degree of light is very 
great, and it | is almost impossible for it to judge accurately of the 
amount of light present. But it is not as a mere source of light 
that the glow lamp is superior | to the gas-burner. The former can 
be put anywhere and used without the adventitious aid of match 


or fire. It does not vitiate or unnecessarily warm the air, and | it 
simplifies the problem of ventilation, while at the same time it 
lends itself above all to the aesthetic harmony of the furniture and 
decorations. (325) 


It is a matter for sincere regret that the publication of scien- 
tific advances should so often be hindered by commercial con- 
siderations. But we cannot help this. We must take things | as 
we find them, and it would, I think, be foolish of us to refuse to 
avail ourselves of limited information because full information is 
withheld. Regarding the matter in | this light, I have very much 
satisfaction in being able to bring before the Society a process of 
extreme interest and great promise, and I do not hesitate to express | 
the opinion that on the whole we ought to feel ourselves greatly 
indebted to M. Chassagne for letting us, even as far as he has,, 
into his secrets. Few inventors | are so liberal as he has been, and 
I hope it may not be long before he may be in a position to disclose 
the whole of his process, and | give photographers the opportunity 
of working it out thoroughly for themselves. The process so far 
as we know it is as follows : — A negative is taken on an ordinary 
gelatine | plate, which has been prepared by treatment with a 
solution, the ingredients of which are unknown. The negative 
thus obtained shows no trace of color, and appears in all respects | 
like any other photographic negative. From it a print is taken on 
ordinary albumenized silver paper, which has been treated wi^h 
the before-mentioned solution ; or if a transparency is | desired, on 
a gelatine plate prepared in the same manner as that which was 
used for the negative. This print shows no trace of color either 
by reflected or transmitted [ light. The print when dry is washed 
over with the solution, and is afterwards treated successively with 
three colored solutions — blue, green, and red — the operation being 
conducted in a | bright light. As the solutions are applied the print 
gradually takes up its appropriate colors, the intermediate tints 
being, it is supposed, produced by a mixture or combination of the | 
three primaries. That a yellow color should be produced by a 
combination of what are presumably green and red pigments is 
not in accordance with expectation,, for though red light | and green 
light, when superimposed, produce yellow, we do not get yellow bj' 
mixing red and green coloring matters. Probably the yellow is 
produced by the application of a yellow | dye mixed in the green 
solution. (396) 


The lecturer next proceeded to describe the investigations 
which had been made into the temperature and density of the 
higher regions of the atmosphere by means of balloons carrying 
self-recording instruments. The barometers and thermometers 
were so constructed as to record their variations on travelling 
paper charts. The apparatus was made of light metals, such as 
aluminium, and the balloons usually contained about 150 cubic 
}-ards of hydrogen gas. The weight to be lifted was about 20 lbs.. 



but there was a practical limit to the height to which these messen- 
gers would rise, and that was twelve miles or thereabouts. Owing 
to the rapid fall in the relative density of the atmosphere at these 
heights in comparison to the hydrogen in the balloons, the latter 
would have to be of enormous size to get lifting power enough to 
travel into higher regions than twelve miles. Thus the lecturer 
showed that by increasing the volume of the balloon ten times it 
would only ascend an additional 6,000 yards, and this ratio rapidly 
increased until a balloon thousands of times as large would not 
add much to the ascensional power. But they had already sounded 
a temperature of "So" Centigrade at an elevation of ten miles, and 
there was no reason to think they would not eventually succeed in 
getting at the true gradients of temperature and pressure. Never- 
theless, the difficulties which stepped in to interfere with the cor- 
rect interpretation of these self-recording balloon results were 
very curious and unexpected. For instance, there was the difficulty 
with solar radiation. As we rose higher the solar radiation became 
greater, owing to the diminished mass of the atmosphere, and 
consequently the temperature of the air became lower. But not- 
withstanding this, or rather in consequence of it, the covering of 
the balloon became very hot indeed, and communicated its heat. 

(The above is a summarized report of the reporter's notes given in the 
shorthand pages, and is not counted for dictation.) 


Although within certain limits, the summer monsoon — which 
bursts, after being ushered in by heavy thunderstorms, about June 
6th in Bombay, and arrives at its northernmost limits some two or j 
three weeks later — is a tolerably regular phenomenon, it is not 
nearly so regular both in time and quality as is commonly sup- 
posed. Its date of arrival, for example, occasionally | varies as 
much as thirty days, while the amount of its attendant rainfall 
has varied from a deficiency of six inches in 1868 to a surplus of 
nine | inches in 1893. Concentrated in one spot this latter excess 
would equal two hundred and eleven cubic miles of water. To 
give an idea of what such an | amount really means, let us suppose 
the excess rainfall of 1893 to be collected in a tank wath a square 
base of eight miles a side. Then | if its altitude were that of the 
snow line of the Himalaya, viz., seventeen thousand feet, such a 
tank would barely contain the total volume of excess water which 
fell over | India during that year. Similarly, if in order to supply 
the defect in 1868 we imagine a hose pipe to stretch all the way 
from the earth to | the moon, of half an acre in section and full of 
water, it would represent a trifle more than the above defect. If 
it were required to irrigate the country \ with this hose, in order to 
keep up the supply to the normal during the six months of the 
monsoon, the water would have to issue from the hose at | the rate 
of fifty-five miles per hour continuously. Moreover, although such 
variations, spread over the entire area, reach this gigantic amount, 
th^ir local effect is relatively much greater, and | produces much 
more disastrous effects in the drv zone inland than near the coast. 


where the rainfall is normally high. In this zone, which comprises 
the Deccan, Mysore, South Madras, | Central and South Punjab, 
and the western section of the North-West Provinces, variations 
often occur amounting to several hundred per cent, of the normal 
supply. It is this district | which, as at present, is most liable to 
famine producing droughts or floods. (373) 

(From a paper an " Fhrecastins: Famines in India," by D. Archibald 
in "Knowledge.") 


It may be estimated that the price of a good engine carriage 
will be about the same as that of a corresponding carriage, horse, 
and harness. And it is probable | that the repairs, painting, and 
lubrication of the engine will nearly correspond with the repairs 
and minor expenses attendant upon a carriage and horse. The 
stabling will be less, but | the driver will probably be paid about 
the same wage as a coachman. There remains, then, only the 
comparison of the provender and litter of a horse with the con- 
sumption I of oil of the car. A horse's provender will cost about j{^i 
a week. Suppose we estimate the average day's work of the 
horse at twenty miles, then the | week's work of six days would be 
one hundred and twenty miles, which would work out at 2d. a 
mile. The corresponding cost of a petroleum motor of 2^ | horse 
power would, however, be only ^d. a mile — that is to say, a 
quarter of the cost of the horse. As the length of an engine 
carriage | will be about half that of a horse and carriage, its powers 
of turning will be much greater. It will not kick nor run away ; 
it can be left to | mind itself in the road ; and if it breaks a part, a 
new one can be immediately procured to replace it. Besides, an 
engine carriage will easily run a hundred |, miles in seven or eight 
hours, which no horse could accomplish. Hence we may antici- 
pate that within a measurable interval of time engine cars will 
replace the huge vans which | are now seen everywhere in London, 
and that our hackney cabs will be replaced by engine cabs. This 
will probably bring about sixpenny fares. The most successful 
horseless carriages at | present are operated by petroleum spirits 
used in an engine closely corresponding to the familiar gas 
engine. But these petroleum motors have their disadvantages. 
The cylinders by virtue of the | explosions become heated, and 
require jackets of water to cool them. This is a great disadvan- 
tage, because a heavy tank of water, containing about ten gallons, 
must be carried in | the carriage, and must be replenished with 
cold water from time to time upon the road. The fuel used is 
either what is known as petroleum spirit, that is to | say, light 
petroleum, or " benzoline," or else the heavy oil which is burnt in 
ordinary paraffin lamps, called petroleum oil. (410) 

( Extracted from a paper on "Horseless Carriages," in the "Edinburgh Review.") 


Nothing was formerly more striking in surgical experience 
than the difference in the behaviour of injuries according to 
whether the skin was implicated or not. Thus, if the bones 


of I the ]eg were broken and the skin remained intact, the surgeon 
applied the necessary apparatus without any other anxiety than 
that of maintaining a good position of the fragments, although | the 
internal injury to the bones and soft parts might be very severe* 
If, on the other hand, a wound of the skin was present communi- 
cating with the broken bones, | although the damage might be in 
other respects comparatively slight, the compound fracture, as it 
was termed, was one of the most dangerous accidents that could 
happen Mr Syme, who | was, I believe, the safest surgeon of his 
time, once told me that he was inclined to think that it would be, 
on the whole, better if all compound fractures | of the leg were 
subjected to amputation, without any attempt to save the limb. 
What was the cause of this astonishing difference ? It was 
clearly in some way due to | the exposure of the injured parts to 
the external world. I had done my best to mitigate it by 
scrupulous ordinary cleanliness and the use of deodorant lotions. 
But to [ prevent it altogether appeared hopeless while we believed 
with Liebig that its primary cause was the atmospheric oxygen 
which, in accordance with the researches of Graham, could not 
fail to I be perpetually diffused through the porous dressings which 
were used to absorb the blood discharged from the wound. But 
when Pasteur had shown that putrefaction was a fermentation 
caused by | the growth of microbes, and that those could not arise 
de novo in the decomposable substance, the problem assumed a 
more hopeful aspect. If the wound could be treated with | some 
substance which, without doing too serious mischief to the human 
tissues, would kill the microbes already contained in it, and 
prevent the future access of others in the living | state, putre- 
faction might be prevented, however freely the air with its 
oxygen might enter. I had heard of carbolic acid as having a 
remarkable deodorising effect upon sewage, and 1 | determined to 
try it in compound fractures. Applying it undiluted to the wound, 
with an arrangement for its occasional renewal, I had the joy of 
seeing these formidable injuries follow | the same safe and tranquil 
course as simple fractures, in which the skin remains unbroken. 


In the course of my life I have tested the effects of over 
thirty-five different substances which are capable of passing by 
diffusion with the blood over the universal | nervous surface, and 
I have divided these substances according to their constitution. 
Starting with what I have considered an ansesthetic base, or 
basic element, I have followed the action of | each substance and 
placed it under what seemed to be its true head; thus, taking 
carbon as a base, I have followed it through the amyl, the butyl, 
the benzine, | the true carbon, the ethyl and ethene series, the 
methyl and methene series, and the turpene series. I have also, 
taking nitrogen and hydrogen as bases, followed the series 
apparently | depending upon it, and by this increase have learned 
so truly the nature of results that, if the chemist can place before 
me any substance he may possess, telling me | its composition, 


weight, solubility in water, vapor density, and boiling point, I can 
on pure grounds of calculation tell whether it is or is not an 
anaesthetic, and if it [ is an anaesthetic how much, according to the 
weight of the animal, it will take to produce narcotism ; how long 
it would take in a given quantity, and what would | be the termina- 
tion of the phenomena before it escaped from the organism. I 
need not trouble the society with the details of these researches, 
but I may indicate that they | have been repeatedly stated in the 
various papers I have read at different times ; but what I would 
say is that no group of phenomena has ever occurred to me | that 
has not to some degree resembled the effects arising from cold — 
that model anaesthetic which has already been referred to, and 
which seems to prevent the nervous expansion, either | locally or 
generally, from absorbing and transmittm^ to the nervous fibres, 
which spring from it, vibrations of sensibility. 

From these observations I am led to infer that anaesthesia, 
whether local | or general, depends always upon the same condition, 
nimely, the suppression of vibrations from the origins, or expan- 
sion, of the peripheral nervous fibres spread out in the mem- 
branous structures. (359) 


Children are born actors. They lose the faculty only when 
the wings of their imagination are weighted by self-consciousness. 
It is not everyone to whom is given the capacity | of always 
remaining a child. It is this blessed gift of receptive sensibility 
which it should be the endeavor — the unconscious endeavor 
perhaps — of every artist to cultivate and to | retain. There are 
those who would have us believe that technique is the end and 
aim of art. There are those who would persuade us that the art of 
acting I is subject to certain mathematical laws. What I venture 
to assert is that all that is most essential, most luminous in acting, 
may be traced to the imaginative faculty. It | is this that makes 
the actor's calling at once the most simple and the most complex 
of all the arts. It is this very simplicity which has caused many 
to I deny to acting a place among the arts, and which has so often 
baffled those who would appraise the art of acting as a precise 
science, and measure it by | the yard-measure of unimaginative 
criticism. Yet in another sense no art is more complex than the 
dramatic art in its highest expression, for in none is demanded of 
its I exponents a more delicate poise, a subtler instinct ; none is 
more dependent on that acute state of the imagination, on that 
divine insanity which we call genius. The actor may | be said to 
rank with, if after, the poet. He, like the poet, is independent of 
recognised laws. The histrionic art is indeed essentially a self- 
governed one. Its laws | are the unwritten laws of the book of 
Nature, illuminated by the imagination. But if the actor can 
claim exemption from academic training, it would be idle to affirm 
that I he is independent of personal attributes, or that he can 
reach any degree of eminence without these accomplishments 
which the strenuous exercise of art alone can give. His Pegasus, 


however, | should be tamed in the broad arena of the stage rather 
than in the enervating stable of the Academy. In acting, in fact, 
there is an infinity to learn, but | infinitely little that can be taught. 
He must be capable of pronouncing his native language and of 
having a reasonable control over the movements of his limbs, but 
thus equipped, | his technical education is practically complete. 

Burke, though his reputation is so prodigious, and is perhaps 
still on the rise, did not, during his career, perceive many of the 
contemporaneous symptoms of success. His speeches, when | 
they were delivered, fell on deaf or heedless ears. There are two 
famous instances of that neglect. He made a speech on Indian 
administration, which was so wearisome and so | ineffective that 
Dundas, who was the Minister to answer it, turned round to Pitt, 
and they both agreed that it was not worth answering. When it 
rame to be printed | it was that famous speech on the Nabob of 
Arcot's debts, which Pitt and Dundas both read with a stupor of 
admiration, and wondered as to how they could have | so mistaken 
it when it was delivered. The last was a speech, I do not recollect 
at this moment which it was, but it was one which Sir Thomas 
Erskine, | surely no mean judge of eloquence, found absolutely 
intolerable to listen to. I forget whether he fell asleep or went out. 
When it came to be published he wore out | one or two copies 
in reading and re-reading it in a frenzy of admiration. Very well 
then, we see his speeches were unsuccessful as speeches, but not 
as treatises. | In the next place, he rose to no high office in the 
State. For a few months he held one subordinate office which 
used to be held by men of | great eminence because it had been so 
extremely lucrative — the office of Paj^master-General. But Burke 
as the first fruits of his economic reform, practised it — which is 
rare — upon | his own office. (Laughter and cheers.) He cut down 
the emoluments, and held the office with a salary which in those 
days was considered comparatively insignificant. Well, then, his 
speeches | were ineffective ; he held no high office. What is the 
last point in which his life as regards temporary success was a 
failure ? The last point in my mind is | this — in none of the great 
objects of his earlier days did this sublime genius see any real 
success while he was alive. His success has followed after death, 
but I he never lived to see it. (366) 


It is a great canon, I have always thought, in all forms of 
criticism, as laid down by a Frenchman a hundred 3'ears ago, 
" You should have preferences, but no ] exclusions." That is a 
great canon, and it is well to apply it to this question, which comes 
into mind when one reads the items of news to-day. It | is well 
to remember that there are high authorities who value Mr Grote's 
history for his vigorous comprehension of the political ideas and 
the political institutions of Athenian democracy. The | same high 
authorities value Thirlwall for his history of Alexander and hi? 


successors ; and then Finlay, who spanned the whole of Hellenic 
history from beginning to end. H is work has | been thought worthy 
to be described by Professor Freeman as the greatest contribution 
to historical literature since Gibbon. All these high authorities, 
who have their own favorites, agree that in | geography, in the 
interpretation of art, in the reproduction of the life of an age, Dr. 
Curtius succeeded in making his picture human and real and 
intelligible to a degree | unequalled, so far as my small knowledge 
goes, by any other worker in the sphere of ancient history. The 
greatest of all his achievements in respect to Hellenic archaeology 
was I the exploration of Olympia, which, as most people are aware, 
was chiefly due to him, was inspired by his perseverance, his 
insight, and the infectious ardour of his interest in | the subject. 
Of course opinions differ as to the value of what my friend Mr Jebb 
calls " salvage from centuries of ruin." So far as particular works 
of art are | concerned, as Mr Jebb has said, the work of Curtius at 
Olympia produced the largest gain possible in such fields, because 
the largest of all consists in a vivid and | suggestive light shed, as 
Mr Jebb calls it, on a great centre of Hellenic history and life. 
On the general subject I can really say nothing that would be of | 
interest or value. I remember Dean Stanley used to say that he 
found it hard to believe that a thing had happened unless he had 
been to the place. (359) 


It would be an imperfect record of your career if one omitted 
reference to your services in the cause of sanitation. Will you 
tell me a little about your work | in this direction ? 

In 1866 I commc^iiced a crusade against the London hospitals, 
and pointed out that the sanitary state of many of them was 
unsatisfactory in the | extreme. St. Bartholomew's Hospital was 
then in a discreditable condition, its out-patients' department 
overcrowded, and the assistant physicians overworked. Nurses 
slept in the wards, or in places unfit for | human beings. The 
condition of other hospitals was hardly better in any degree. At 
Charing Cross Hospital I got a special committee appointed to 
inquire into the general internal condition | of the hospital. 

Then as to your interest in the blind ? 

The educational training of the blind and deaf mute I have 
most earnestly advocated in the Press for half a century. With 
regard to the munificent bequest (;;^30o,ooo) of the late Mr 
Gardner, I protested against the proposed erection of a grand 
building as an asylum | for the blind. I urged that, as a rule, such 
buildings utterly failed in fulfilling the objects for which they were 
established. Thus it came about that the whole of | the fund has 
been devoted to the better purpose of affording help to the more 
deserving among the aged, and assisting in the education of the 
young and converting them | into useful members of society. The 
Milton Society, for assisting the adult blind in their technical 
education at home and in " reading," was chiefly owing to my 
efforts, and has | been, I am thankful to say, a complete success. 
I very strongly advocated the boarding-out of pauper children — 


pointing out the dangers to health and morals of aggregating them \ 
in large asylums. 

As regards other public questions in which you have labored ? 

I took great interest in the movement made by a society to 
improve artisans' dwellings. (328) 

{An exir^i from an interview with Dr. Jahez Hogg, published in the " Sketch.") 


Mr Justice NORTH. — Supposing such a case as I have put to 
you, the death of some very eminent foreign Prime Minister, the 
news arrives at the Times from obviously | a correspondent of 
intelligence, education, and experience, which expresses very 
felicitously the death of the Minister and also the great loss the 
country and Europe have sustained from it. Assuming | it was sent 
by a person under such circumstances would it have copyright ? 

Mr CozenS-Hardy. — Oh, yes, there is copyright in that, 
and no one can publish it. It | is a different thing from publishing 
the mere fact. They may properl)r publish a fact, but they have 
not the right to publish a narrative in the form in which | our 
skilled paid correspondent has detailed the event for the Times. 

Mr Justice NoRTH. — Then does it come to this, that they 
would be at liberty to re-state the | bare facts found in the 
telegram, but not to adopt the happy mode of expression in 
which they are conveyed? 

Mr Cozens-Hardy.— That may be. 

Mr Justice NoRTH. — It | comes to this — they could not copy 
the telegram, but they could state for themselves the facts stated 
in the telegram ? 

Mr Cozens-Hardy.— That is what I read from | Lord Eldon's 
judgment in " Wilkins v. Aikin " — " The question, upon the 
whole, is whether this is a legitimate use of the plaintiff's pub- 
lication in the fair exercise of a mental | operation deserving the 
character of an original work." That is a passage which has 
been quoted more than once with approval — it was quoted by 
Lord Cottenham with approval — as | being the truest test which 
could be arrived at. The defendants may make use of a passage 
or passages in a prior work so long as they apply that which | the 
Court can regard as real, intellectual, legitimate, honest labor, 
but they must not copy. 

Mr Justice North. — I do not understand how you apply that 
to the question I | put. (330 


There are fifteen gentlemen, whose names I will in a few 
minutes indicate to you, who are the defendants to this charge. 
Before I refer to them, or refer to | the details of the evidence, it 
will be convenient that I should state to you that the offence 
which we allege has been committed against the statute is that at | 
the end of November, 1895, and in the month of December, 1895, 
a military expedition was wholly or in part prepared in Her 
Majesty's dominions, and | that military expedition, under the 


command of the gentlemen who are defendants here, started on 
29th December, i8p5, from places which I will indicate to you, 
and I entered the Transvaal, which is the territory of the South 
African Republic. For the purposes of to-day it is sufficient that 
I should state that our view is — and | I do not think there will be 
any question about it — that the South African Republic was a 
friendly State within the meaning of the section. It will be 
convenient [ if I tell you the outline of the geography to which 
reference will be made in the course of my statement and in the 
evidence of the witnesses. In the | extreme south of Africa, there 
is the colony known as Cape Colony. Immediately north of what 
was at one time the boundary of Cape Colony, is the territory 
which is I marked upon the map British Bechuanaland, extending 
up to the river Molopo. It will be established, I think, beyond all 
question, that British Bechuanaland is part of Her Majesty's 
dominions. | In that territory, some few miles south of the river 
Molopo, and some few miles west of the boundary of the 
Transvaal, is the place called Mafeking, which, I think, | will 
be established to you as part of Her Majesty's dominions. That 
is the place from which a part of the expedition started. 
Between twenty and thirty miles north of | Mafeking, also to 
the west of the westward boundary of the Transvaal, is a place 
called Pitsani Potlogo. That is within the territory which is 
marked Bechuanaland Protectorate. We shall | submit, if neces- 
sary, that Pitsani Potlogo, was also a part of Her Majesty's 
dominions for the purpose of this act. But so far as you are 
concerned I do not | think it will be necessary to enter into that 
question. With regard to the places of which I have spoken, I 
only gave the dates, without referring to documents. In | order 
that my learned friends may know the particular documents and 
class of documents to which we shall refer, and may have copies 
if they desire to make any use | of them, I may say that the 
Foreign Enlistment Act has to be proclaimed. (464) 


Captain Hastings cross-examined: You have laid before 
the Court the fact that, up to the moment of striking, you had no 
misapprehension as to the safety of the Howe ? | — That is so. 

And that up to the time your ship struck you had no 
suspicion that she was not in a safe position? — Yes. 

The chart by which your | ship was navigated shows seven 
fathoms of water where she grounded ? — Yes. That would be 
37ft. 6in. 

The tide was 11 or 12 feet above low water? | — Yes. 

So that where she struck there should have been 50 feet of 
water ? — Yes. 

If the chart showed any danger, you could have avoided it 
with perfect ease ? — Certainly. | 

Did the movements of the leading ship hamper your move- 
ments? — No. 

Was anything done or left undone by me in your view which 


contributed to your striking on that unknown | rock, where you 
thought it was perfectly safe? — It being an unknown rock, nothing 
that you did contributed to my striking upon it. 

Do you observe that in Leusada Bay | the whole of the bay in 
the chart is filled with soundings, none of which are less than 
seven fathoms ? — The latter was marked on the spot where the 
Howe I struck ; also a line running parallel. 

It was among some of those soundings the turn to starboard 
took place, and there was apparently ample water. Up to the 
moment of | striking I observed no symptoms of drifting in any 
particular direction, but I was aware that the tide was flowing. 
If the tide was running in the general direction of | my ship there 
would be no indications of drifting; but if setting across I should 
see, but not at once, by the shifting of the bearing marks, and the 
way I in which the helm was answered, some symptoms of 
drifting (310) 


The veil of the Temple is rent asunder between the different 
sections of Christian churches, and of religious communities. 
The object of Christ's coming and Christ's death was that His | 
disciples should be one — one not in form, for which He cared 
little, but one in spirit, for which He cared everything. In the 
presence of the Cross of Christ, I of the greatness of the moral evil 
which He came to destroy, of the greatness of the Divine good- 
ness which he came to display, most of the questions which have | 
moved the churches and sects ought to have sank into utter 
insignificance. He came. He died, as we are told, with the very 
purpose of " gathering together in one the | children of God that 
were scattered about." In the famous church of the Holy Sepul- 
chre, which is built over His supposed tomb, and to commemorate 
His death in Jerusalem, the | world has been for centuries scandal- 
ized by the furious rivalries with which all the older Christian 
communities, Greek, Latin, Roman, Coptic, and Syrian, claim each 
their own part in that | holy place — by the walls of partition which 
are erected here, and there, and everywhere, to shut off each com- 
munity from sharing in the worship of its neighbour. Alas ! is | 
not this a likeness of what has taken place throughout the Chris- 
tian world? Have not we all been too much bent on piecing 
together again the veil which was rent | asunder, in building again 
that which Christ came to destroy ? Even in death, in the quiet 
peace and repose of death, this rage for division has penetrated, 
and our cemeteries, | where, after the long struggle of life, the 
departed might well be expected to lie together in one common 
resting place, have been disfigured by separations and counter 
separations ; and | exactly there, where all Christians should have 
been eager to show that all difference had ceased, there have been 
erected, even in outward form, the barriers of distinction and 
alienation. | God grant that the true Gospel of the Cross of Christ 
may cast down these strongholds of this old, heathen, barbarian 
prejudice. When in the battle fields of Sedan or | of Metz we read 
over the grassy mounds inscribed on the line of humble crosses, 


" Here Germans and French rest together in God," we feel that 
the doctrine there expressed | is indeed the teaching of the Cross 
on which it is written. (402) 


" That we may present every man perfect in Christ." — 
Colossians i. 28. 

Christianity at first distinguished itself among all the religions 
of the world by equality. There was this | aristocratic distinction 
of intellect in both the Jewish and Gentile religions. An example 
of this difference between the intelligence of the educated and the 
superstition of the vulgar was in | the idea of communion with God 
then prevalent. Among the contemporary religions it was the 
privilege of a select few, of ascetics. They alone were capable of 
contemplating God. But | a vital real fellowship with God accord- 
ing to Christ was possible to all men alike. This is the simple 
levelling principle of Christianity. The Church is the household 
of God. I The creed common to the heart of man was human want, 
a sense of sin, a desire for God, a sense of brotherhood. The dis- 
closure of the love of God | telling upon our human nature, the 
exhibition of the divine love and sacrifice made possible the for- 
giveness of sin. It is the love carried out in the humanity of 
Christ, I together with the principles of incarnation and atonement, 
which appeal to the general heart of human kind. Many things 
in the Bible are bewildering to our intelligence ; but the great | 
truths contained in it are very plain, and they teach a desire to get 
rid of sin and to know the mind of God. The creed of the Church 
is I work ; this lies at her very heart. It is through this that men 
grow by love and faith to maturity of knowledge and to perfection. 
Nothing in Church history strikes | one more than the belief in this 
principle — work for the equality of all men before Christ. The 
catechetical lectures of the early Church, the teachings of Cyril, 
Augustine, Chrysostom, | all lay in this direction. We, too, teach 
the same truth ; we reiterate it, again and again, both for the 
educated here and the uneducated in Central Africa. The great | 
danger of our time is exclusiveness. Intellectualism is perplexed, 
because it mistakes the ground of its difficulties. Many have 
reached the stage of education which enables them to argue, but | 
they know not enough to give them the vantage ground above 
argument. So article after article appears in magazine after 
magazine, with no depth in them to approach the great | scope of 
Christian truth. (394) 

It is interesting to note that the main factor of the double 
satisfaction — namely increase of receipts and diminution of expen- 
diture in comparison with the estimate — is the average attendance | 
of scholars in schools. Happily, we have got 379,000 in this average 
attendance instead of 370,000 estimated for. But this increase | 
does not cause any increase of expenditure. On the contrary, 
instead of such increase, there is actually a decrease of expenditure, 
as compared with the estimate, entirely owing to the | economical 


administration of the School Management Committee. This bears 
out what I have often represented to the Board, that while nothing 
is so financially injurious as a failure in the | average attendance, 
nothing is so advantageous financially as an increase of that atten- 
dance, for this causes at once an increase of receipt both in respect 
of ordinary grants from the J Education Department and as regards 
the special grants received in compensation for fees. I now come 
to the budget for the current year. Taking the expenditure side, 
the first item | is that of teachers' salaries, ;^i, 029,500, or over a 
million pounds sterling, showing an increase of ;;^32,304 | over the 
actual figure of the preceding year. The number of teachers is 
almost exactly the same as it was when I made my statement this 
time last | year, namely, 9,364, as against 9,305, This indicates 
economy on the part of the School Management Committee in 
fixing I the staff of schools, inasmuch as we have fully 16,000 more 
scholars in average attendance. The next item to be noticed is 
that of j^68,200 | for inspection and special instruction. For furni- 
ture and repairs there is set down ;^ioo,ooo. This is an appreciable 
increase over former years, and it is, of | course, partly owing to the 
reparation of defective buildings. Although all the defects that at 
one time came to light have been thoroughly rectified, at what 
must in fairness be | called a moderate expense, yet further defects 
in buildings erected some time ago are still discovered. It is 
believed that the Works Committee do their utmost to prevent such 
faults I occurring in buildings that are erected nowadays. But, 
besides this the sanitary requirements of the age are growing fast, 
and, when drains and the like have to be repaired, opportunity | is 
taken of improving their construction according to the sanitary 
engineering of the day. The charge for evening classes is set 
down at ;;{^3 1,300, being | less than the ;i^36,878 actually expended 
in the previous year. (468) 


We, my Lords, are politicians — we here and in the other 
House — are we to adopt the whole of the views of Her Majesty's 
Commission — though I admit that it | is supported with all the 
weight of very distinguished men — are we to adopt those Reports 
without considering all the circumstances which might palliate the 
offences which are condemned ? I | cannot see that it is possible 
to do that. Now, my Lords, I object to the motion of the noble 
Marquis on other grounds. I object to adopt any part | of the 
Report without comment. First of all I think it extremely unfair 
and extremely unjust that we at all events in Parliament should 
record the fact that these national | leaders have been accused of 
the grossest and gravest crimes, without expressing our deep 
regret that such serious wrong has been done to them. What 
could be more serious than | the charge of the forged letters ? I 
cannot conceive anything more scandalous than what occurred 
with regard to those letters. No one who is at all fair will say 
that I the Times knowing they were forged put them forward: but 
what we all say is that there was a most culpable and gross negli- 
gence in putting forward these charges to | ruin the character of a 



leader of a people, and blacken the character of all those connected 
with him, without making the most careful investigation. Every- 
body who has had any | connection with Ireland must have known 
how utterly unreliable and untrustworthy Mr Pigott was. He 
had been offering information to the Government of Ireland for 
years and years. I mentioned | only the other day, but it is worth 
perhaps mentioning it again, that as far back as the year 1873 he 
wrote an autograph letter to me, when | he thought I was away 
from my ordinary advisers, saying that he had information to give 
of a political kind, and no doubt asking for money to be paid him. | 
We all knew at the Castle that he was constantly in the habit of 
trying to sell information, and anybody who had any connection 
with the Times, and in connection | with a charge so grave, ought 
to have had the common prudence to go to some of those who were 
bound to know something with regard to Mr Pigott. I | think, my 
Lords, it is a scandalous thing that a charge of this nature should 
be made. (407) 


I will now put before the House the number of ships which 
we propose to add to those which are now under construction. 
We propose to add five battleships, four | first-class cruisers, three 
second-class cruisers, six third-class cruisers, and twenty-eight 
torpedo destroyers. With regard to the torpedo boats, I must 
inform the House that we have | ordered eight of them in anticipa- 
tion of the verdict of the House, and that if the House should now 
choose it may strike them off the number we now propose. | With 
regard to the list of cruisers, the House will observe that they are 
mostly proposed to be constructed according to existing types, 
namely, the Diadem, the Talbot, the Arrogant, | and the Pelorus. 
The five first-class battleships are to be improved Renowns. To 
avoid misconception, I may say that the designs were prepared by 
Sir William White himself. He | has been . incapacitated during 
some months, but before he left to seek the restoration of his 
health, he was able to approve the whole of the program which we 
now I propose to the House. (Cheers.) His authority is a great 
authority, for Sir William White has built 139 ships, and not one 
of those 139 I ships has had a deeper draught, or has erred in sta- 
bility on the calculations he made. (Hear, hear.) His recent 
ships, the Magnificent and the Majestic, had | 200 tons less weii^ht 
when commissioned than as designed, and naval constructors w ill 
know what that means. (Hear, hear.) These new Renowns will 
be 394 I feet in length and 74 feet in breadth. They will be of 
12,900 tons displacement, or 2,000 tons smaller than the Majestic ; 
and they will | draw two feet less water — a point to which we 
attach great importance. They will have the same coal endur- 
ance and rather greater speed than the Majestic. We have 
not I sacrificed speed, we have not sacrificed coal-carrying 
capacity. They will be fitted with water-tube boilers, and will 
consequently be able to steam further, and at a higher rate | of 
speed. In speed, in armament, in coal-carrying capacity, the 
ships will be equal to the Majestic, which is 2,000 tons larger, 
but the difference is in armor. I (390) 



My mind has vacillated a good deal during the argument upon 
this point, which is, undoubtedly, one of very considerable im- 
portance. In this case it arises in this way. The | railway com- 
pany, in answer to a charge that they have since a date named in 
the statute of 18^4 raised their rate of charge, say that when the | 
rate impugned is dissected, it will turn out that they have not 
raised any rate as to which we have jurisdiction to entertain the 
question under section i of the | Act of 1894. They say that on 
the rate being disintegrated it would turn out that that part of the 
rate which was for conveyance has remained unchanged [ and that 
the apparent increase is due not to an increase in the charge for con- 
veyance, but exclusively to an increase in the charge for cartage. 
Having said that, they | refer to section 5 of the schedule of the Con- 
firmation Act, and contend that the effect of that section is to take all 
questions of the unreasonableness of charges for | all the matters 
mentioned in that section — one of which is the collection or delivery 
of merchandise outside the terminal station — out of the jurisdiction 
of the Commissioners, and | to send them compulsorily to arbitra- 
tion by an arbitrator to be appointed by the Board of Trade. They 
say, therefore, that, inasmuch as on their view of the facts — 
namely, | that the increase is one of the cartage rate only, that 
raises a difference as to the reasonableness of the cartage charge, 
but that is a difference which, by the | terms of the fifth section of 
the schedule, which I have just referred to, must be decided by an 
arbitrator appointed by the Board of Trade, and can be decided | 
by no other person, and therefore is a matter as to which the Rail- 
way Commissioners have no jurisdiction. They also refer to a 
case which came before this Court at | the last sittings — namely, 
Wildman's case, which, to a considerable extent, is on all fours 
with the present case, though not entirely, for reasons which I 
shall point out | in a moment. In Wildman's case this Court did 
take the course of sending to the Board of Trade an application 
based upon a complaint under sub-section 4 | of section 5 of the 
Confirmation Order Act, 1891, It was a claim in respect of a sum 
charged for the accommodation of trucks during a certain time, | 
and it was suggested, though it was not admitted, nor was it at all 
clear on the facts, that there had been an increase made by the 
railway company in | such charge. But the point was taken before 
us that assuming that what the railway company had done, which 
prima facie was a reduction of the charge, in its result | did involve 
an increase in that charge, the Legislature had clearly thought 
that the convenient mode of deciding such dispute was by arbitra- 
tion under the fifth section to which I | have referred. (512) 


As to this statue of Burns, it may be well to remember two or 
three points. Manifold are the statues of Burns, but of busts or 
statues taken from life | there is not one ; there is not even a cast 
of his face taken after death (though we have the cast of his skull), 


inestimably precious as it would be ( now. We have to some 
extent, therefore, to idealize our statue of Burns, though not so 
much as in the case of the statue of Highland Mary, which was 
erected | the other day — a graceful tribute to a charming^ character, 
but one of whom we possess no likeness whatever. Still, of Burns 
we have nothing but canvas, and canvas that | is not wholly satis- 
factory, for the engraving (which was, after all, touched from life), 
always seemed to me much more powerful and life-like than the 
original painting — to give | much more of the vigour of the face 
and the spirit flashing through the eyes. We have ample scope in 
a statue of Burns for idealization, and after all that | is not a bad 
thing. If we cannot have an image taken directly from life 
approved as a close likeness by contemporaries, let us try to 
realize what he was | like. We often please ourselves with fancies, 
of what such-and-such a character would look like if he walked 
into the room where we are sitting. It is perhaps | a vain effort, 
for our surroundings baffle us. How can we fancy Moses, or 
Homer, or Caesar, or St. Paul, or Attila, or Peter the Hermit 
walking into our library? | The mere furniture scares the idea. 
Luther in his monk's dress we can conceive ; the dress remains 
unchanged. And when we get down to the era of portraiture, we 
can I strain our imaginations to see the subjects of Holbein, and 
Rembrandt, and Vandyck walking out of their frames, and so on to 
our own time, until we can realise men | who never existed, such 
as Pickwick oj- Colonel Newcome, or even Squire Western, or 
Moses Primrose, without a wrench. The difficulty really lies not 
in the form or face of | a man, but in the embodiment of the inex- 
plicable force called genius. You can realize perhaps the face; 
what none can realise is the manner and the degree in which 
genius | animated it. Their eyes did not always gleam, their 
nostrils did not always dilate, their lips did not always curl — per- 
haps they never did ; they were not always the figures | portrayed 
for us in works of imagination — perhaps they never were. (431) 




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